In Research


Year: 2017
Published in: ICSEM Working Papers
Cited as: Rwamigabo, E. R. (2017) “Social Enterprise in Rwanda: An Overview”, No. 46.


The paper presents the evolution of economically oriented social organizations in Rwanda, mostly under the form of cooperatives and NGOs, and with inspiration from traditional forms of mutual help. The context of emergence of social enterprises in Rwanda was shaped among others by the Anglo-Saxon influence. Other factors also influenced the emergence of social enterprises in Rwanda, notably the aftermath of the 1994 genocide against Tutsi, the current governance prevailing in the country and the current entrepreneurships trends. The paper also underlines the absence of research on the subject and mentions the absence of a law governing social enterprises in Rwanda. Six categories of social enterprises in Rwanda and their main features have been identified and analyzed, namely NGOs, cooperatives, informal organizations, social entrepreneurs, public/private partnerships, and companies carrying out social activities. Finally, the paper provides the institutional and contextual trajectories of social enterprises in Rwanda.