In Research, Skills for Social Entrepreneurship


Year: 2019
Published in: California Management Review
Cited as: Rangan, V. Kasturi, and Tricia Gregg. “How social entrepreneurs zig-zag their way to impact at scale.” California Management Review 62, no. 1 (2019): 53-76.


Nonprofit organisations, Social entrepreneurship, Systemic impact, Scaling, Strategy process, Social well-being.


This article provides guidance to social entrepreneurs and their funders as they seek to advance the enterprise from startup to scale. It focuses on the evolution of four social entrepreneurs and their decision-making paths as they attempt to scale their respective organizations. It then develops a framework to understand how social entrepreneurs alternate between pursuing activities to increase the scale of their work and delivering social impact in a “zig-zagging” process.