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Future Research

“1. The study recognizes that the survey should be extended to more innovation and entrepreneurial
sectors. Current entrepreneurial observations are mostly related to government-funded projects, with strong socially missioned innovation initiatives. Economic interests are less prioritized and concerned. As such, this study results cannot account for entrepreneurial contexts with strong tensions between social and economic interests.

2. Future research should explore new sampling strategies to assess and compare “self” theories in different contexts of entrepreneurial motivation.”

Policy Makers

“1. Policymakers and educators can provide more stimulus to drive individuals’ desire to act in the public interest through social entrepreneurship, such as through competitions (such as Ashoka Young Changemakers and the DBS Foundation Social Entrepreneurship Grant), workshops and socially relevant curricula (from engineering and science to business studies and social sciences programs), rather than merely focusing on the commercial knowledge or literacy aspects of social entrepreneurship (such as budgeting, opportunity evaluation, persuasion, and marketing skills).

2. More effort and resources could be invested in promoting social entrepreneurship through alternative media such as comics or games, and the clever use of social media to turn social entrepreneurship into a trendy but important activity that is good for individuals as well as for the wider public.

3. Policymakers and educators can also build more awareness of social entrepreneurship as an alternative career option for young people who have a strong passion for public service, beyond conventional careers in the public sector and non-profits.”

Support Organisations

“1. Policymakers and educators can provide more stimulus to drive individuals’ desire to act in the public interest through social entrepreneurship, such as through competitions (such as Ashoka Young Changemakers and the DBS Foundation Social Entrepreneurship Grant), workshops and socially relevant curricula (from engineering and science to business studies and social sciences programs), rather than merely focusing on the commercial knowledge or literacy aspects of social entrepreneurship (such as budgeting, opportunity evaluation, persuasion, and marketing skills).

2. More effort and resources could be invested in promoting social entrepreneurship through alternative media such as comics or games, and the clever use of social media to turn social entrepreneurship into a trendy but important activity that is good for individuals as well as for the wider public.

3. Policymakers and educators can also build more awareness of social entrepreneurship as an alternative career option for young people who have a strong passion for public service, beyond conventional careers in the public sector and non-profits.”

Future Research

“1. This study’s findings may be specific to Indonesia’s socioeconomic, political, and cultural context. Thus, their generalizability may be limited. Future research efforts directed at extending the present study could examine the effects of public service motivation and money ethics on social entrepreneurship intentions in other non-Western contexts.

2. The finding that entrepreneurial self-efficacy only partially mediated the effects of both public service motivation and money ethics on social entrepreneurial intention implies that other mediators exist that have yet to be investigated. For instance, entrepreneurial/ innovative passion may play an important mediating role. A comparison of the public service motivation and money ethics levels of millennials and different generations (e.g., Gen X, Gen Y, baby boomers) is also an area worth investigating.

3. Other important future research agendas include how and to what extent public service motivation and money ethics can explain the performance and governance of social entrepreneurship activities and staff retention in consistently creating public value and the kind of outcomes or changes they create in public service provision.

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Support Organisations


1. For start-ups we, e.g. see proactiveness as relevant for the social outcome. This can lead to various formats focusing on proactive behavior, e.g. strategically searching for social
entrepreneurial opportunities or designing idea generating concepts or concrete events that include the preemptive occupation of resources with social entrepreneurial relevance.

2. Study results also indicate that, for both start-ups and incumbents, socialness has a positive impact on economic performance. This is important for motivating and supporting social entrepreneurial activities, since it underlines that a social orientation is not opposed to financial orientation, but can even push and strengthen economic action (as a basis for social return). Knowing this can lead to different forms of integrating and fostering socialness as a motivational factor for both social and financial results. Considering this may also lead to implications for social entrepreneurship education.

3. It may also lead to new approaches in entrepreneurship education by taking into account foresighted and strategic thinking as another important social entrepreneurial competence. Results show that one should not concentrate on all or single Social Entrepreneurship Orientation dimensions, but their interplay.
There is a need for examining the specific circumstances and the individuals’ personality before focusing on a certain (combination of) SEO dimension(s). SEO, thus, can have many faces and still lead to social as well as economic success. Practitioners, thus, need to make sure, that they are aware of this and take into account which combinations are promising under which circumstances and how they can counterbalance each other. “

Future Research

“1. Future reserach is required to explore Social entrepreneurship orientation in both start-up and established firm context.

2. Future research in emerging economy contexts would also be a welcome addition to this nascent literature.

3. Longitudinal research contrasting SEO behaviour from an international perspective would also offer novel insights.

4. It is suggested to integrate various national economies in future researh in order to analyze if the results still remain the same under different condiions.

5. Finally, when analyzing the SEO phenomenon at a variable level there is also argument for inclusion of further factors possibly influncing social entrepreneurship performance especially in terms of evaluating economic performance. This study offers more research opportunities of exploring the issue of self-perception of performance focussing on alternative ways of capturing social entrepreneurial performance , especially quantifying social impact.

Support Organisations

1. Managers should not squander an investment in SEO simply by focusing only on financial performance.

Future Research

“1. First, this study focused only on a sample small companies from Austria. Future research can test the model with samples in different. contexts such as emerging or developing markets and larger firms.

2. This research employed perceptual indicators of performance, future research can extend on the findings by including objective measures of performance.

3. An other interesting field of research would be the apparently differences in why and how social enterprises are started and managed, e.g. by women as also suggested by Rosca et al., 2020. “

Social Entrepreneurs

“These findings have important practical implications for managers.

1. Results reveal that being socially entrepreneurially oriented is beneficial for the firm’s social performance, and if the firm is successful in its social performance, then it shall benefit economically (the mediating effect). In other words, success drives success. So, if a manager is passionate about the firm’s social impact or social performance, this will also mean higher financial success for the firm.

2. However, additional tests show that SEO does not have a direct positive effect on financial performance, but rather a negative one. This is compensated for by the positive financial performance effects of social performance. Managers should not squander an investment in SEO simply by focusing only on financial performance.”

Future Research

“1. The limited scope of this study, which focuses on undergraduate and postgraduate students, limis the generalizability of the findings. Future research may apply the conceptual framework to working adults.

2. Future research could enhance our understanding of the indirect effect of empathy by examining other types of employee attitudes and behaviors.

Social Entrepreneurs

“This study provides business leaders, policymakers, and entrepreneurship educators with several important managerial implications.

1. Findings recommend that the ability to sense others’ thoughts and feeling are of paramount importance in identifying and supporting promising social entrepreneurs. As perspective taking and empathic concern are two crucial prerequisites for social entrepreneurship activities, business leaders are recommended to offer opportunities for their employees to learn and develop their abilities to apprehend and react to customers’ thoughts and feelings.

2. Second, managers’ understanding of how prosocial behaviour intervenes the relationship between empathy and social entrepreneurial intention suggests that prosocial behaviour can be broadened and deepened by appropriate training programs. Firms valuing entrepreneurial and socially concerned employees should recognize that cooperative group values and norms are of paramount importance. They should not only implement financial but also non-financial schemes to cultivate and foster a prosocial mindset that tap into employees’ desires for considering others’ goals and attaching more importance to the well-being of the group.

3. Third, managers should also note that opportunity contingencies shape the impact of prosocial behavior on social entrepreneurial intention by accentuating the role of opportunity evaluation and opportunity exploitation. The effect of prosocial behavior on social entrepreneurial intention is strengthened when both opportunity evaluation and opportunity exploitation are high. This implies that when individuals perceive a positive evaluation of ‘what will be’ if the opportunity was exploited – that is when they see this business opportunity is worth considering – they are more likely to engage in establishing social businesses.

4. Moreover, the results suggest that not only does opportunity evaluation matter but also the pursuit of an actual opportunity in the form of a decisive action (e.g. how to allocate available resources to develop new products) can play a central role. When resource allocation decisions on the likelihood for the opportunity to be exploited appropriately and successfully are taken into consideration, this opportunity exploitation provides fertile conditions for social entrepreneurial intention to thrive.