In Research


Year: 2020


Drawing on the existing literature, we differentiate between social impact, social responsibility, and—as an aggregate concept—social performance, and provide a holistic perspective on the social performance of social enterprises. We review why measuring social performance is important and for whom—the organization itself and its stakeholders—as well as the challenges and obstacles involved in social performance measurement. We propose civic wealth, a variable that captures the social, economic, and communal endowments generated by social enterprises and the communities where they are located, as an appropriate performance-based dependent variable in social entrepreneurship. Civic wealth addresses the challenge of capturing organizational effects at an extra-organizational—civic—level of analysis.