In Research


Year: 2017
Published in: ICSEM Project
Cited as: Ruiz Rivera, M. J. & Lemaître, A. (2017) “Social Enterprise in Ecuador: Institutionalization and Types of Popular and Solidarity Organizations in the Light of Political Embeddedness”, No. 39.


The aim of this paper is threefold. First, we present a synthetic theoretical framework concerning institutionalization and the concept of embeddedness (section 2). Through an institutionalist and historical perspective (Polanyi 1944), we review the main historical traditions that led to a political and legal recognition of EPS initiatives in Ecuador as well as their enrollment in public policies. Section 3 drafts four models of EPS organizations, each drawn from one of the sources of institutionalization previously presented. Through a synthetic analysis, in the light of the ideal-type proposed by EMES (Defourny and Nyssens 2013) and the works of Hillenkamp and Laville (2015), we identify some distinctive features of the different models regarding 5 their legal forms, type of mission, governance structure, and resources. These models are also illustrated in different fields of activity, both established and emerging in the Ecuadorian landscape. We conclude by some final considerations regarding the social enterprise and solidarity economy research agenda.