In Research


Year: 2020
Published in: Journal of Intellectual Capital
Cited as:Popkova, E. and Sergi, B. (2020), “Human capital and AI in industry 4.0. Convergence and divergence in social entrepreneurship in Russia”, Journal of Intellectual Capital,Vol. 21 No. 4, pp. 565-581.


The purpose of this article is to determine the future proportion and variants of usage of human intellect and artificial intelligence (AI) in entrepreneurship of industry 4.0 that fits social entrepreneurship the most. It could be convergence (simultaneous utilization during the same entrepreneurial processes with the emphasis on unique features by the terms of the competition) or divergence (usage during different business processes by the terms of labor division).

The authors determine the influence of usage of human capital and AI on the efficiency of social entrepreneurship. The authors identify the perspective directions of usage of AI in social entrepreneurship and evaluate the readiness and interest in the implementation of these directions of concerned parties. The authors also model the optimal proportions and the variant of usage of human intellect and AI in social entrepreneurship in the conditions of Industry 4.0 in the future (until 2030).

It is found that social entrepreneurship will use the opportunities of Industry 4.0 for optimization of its activities until 2030, but will refuse from full automatization, using human intellect and AI at the same time. The most perspective directions of application of AI at social companies are a collection of social goods and services, marketing studies and promotion of social goods and services. Neither convergence nor divergence of human and artificial intellectual capital does not fully conform to the interests of concerned parties. The most preferable (optimal) variant of usage of human intellect and AI in social entrepreneurship in the Industry 4.0 is human intelligent decision support.


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Recommendations from this resource

Future Research

The obtained findings should be extended to other countries of the world.

Social Entrepreneurs

1. Social companies can improve their activities based on AI (artificial intelligence) and create additional advantages.

2. Digital modernization of social companies based on AI is desirable and accessible – but it should consider the specifics of social entrepreneurship.